Biblical Hebrew for All

Abbreviations and Notes

The following abbreviations are used in this website.


BHFA       Biblical Hebrew For All. A series of 5 textbooks. 
Volumes 1-3 deal with all aspects of Biblical Hebrew that are needed to read and literally translate the Tanakh.
Volume 4 deals with the process called "Textual Criticism."
Volume 5 contains notes on 400 texts from the Hebrew Bible where modern English translations do not give us complete insight into the original Hebrew.
B.C.E.      The Era Before Jesus Christ, previously known as B.C.
C.E.         The Current Era, previously known as A.D. 
LXX         The Septuagint The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. This took place about three hundred years B.C.E.
MT   Masoretic Text This is the original Hebrew Bible to which the Masoretes added vowels signs.
The Vulgate  The Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible. This took place about four hundred years C.E.
  • all single / groups †
  • of occurrances cited
  • transliteration[   ]
  • first person1
  • second person2
  • third person3
  • absolute abs.
  • alternative alt.
  • active act.
  • adjective adj.
  • Biblical Hebrew BH
  • Chapter Chpt.
  • Cohortative Coh.
  • common c.
  • construct cstr.
  • continued cont.
  • Dagesh Forte DF
  • Dagesh Lene DL
  • Definite Direct DDOM
  • Object Marker
  • For example e.g.
  • feminine f.
  • Idiomatic Idm.
  • Imperative Imp.
  • Imperfect Impf.
  • Infinitive Inf.
  • Literally Litrl.
  • masculine m.
  • noun n.
  • Old Testament O.T.
  • paragraph Par.
  • Participle Part.
  • passive pass.
  • Perfect Perf.
  • plural pl.
  • preposition prep.
  • pronoun pron.
  • pronominal pronm.
  • somebody sb.
  • something sth.
  • singular sg.
  • verb v.
  • virtual doubling vd.


  • ABP Apostolic Bible Polyglot

  • ASV American Standard Version

  • BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia

  • BSV Berean Standard Version

  • CEV Contemporary English Version

  • CSB Christian Standard Bible

  • DRB Douay Rheims Bible

  • ERV English Revised Version

  • ESV English Standard version

  • GNT Good News Translation

  • ISV International Standard Version

  • KJB King James Bible 

  • MSG The Message 

  • NASB New American Standard Bibl 

  • NHEB New Heart English Bible 

  • NKJV New King James Version 

  • NIV New International Version 

  • NLT New Living Translation 

  • WBT Webster's Bible Translation 

  • WEB World English Bible 

  • YLT Young's Literal Translation