Biblical Hebrew

Abbreviations and Notes
The following abbreviations are used in this website.


BHFA       Biblical Hebrew For All. A series of 5 textbooks. 
Volumes 1-3 deal with all aspects of Biblical Hebrew that are needed to read and literally translate the Tanakh.
Volume 4 deals with the process called "Textual Criticism."
Volume 5 contains notes on 400 texts from the Hebrew Bible where modern English translations do not give us complete insight into the original Hebrew.

B.C.E.      The Era Before Jesus Christ, previously known as B.C.

C.E.         The Current Era, previously known as A.D.  

LXX         The Septuagint  
The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. This took place about three hundred years B.C.E.

MT Masoretic Text 
This is the original Hebrew Bible to which the Masoretes added vowels signs.

                The Vulgate  
 The Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible. This took place about four hundred years C.E.


all single / groups
of occurrances cited
transliteration [   ]
first person 1
second person 2
third person 3
absolute abs.
alternative alt.
active act.
adjective adj.
Biblical Hebrew BH
Chapter Chpt.
Cohortative Coh.
common c.
construct cstr.
continued cont.
Dagesh Forte DF
Dagesh Lene DL
Definite Direct DDOM
Object Marker
For example e.g.
feminine f.
Idiomatic Idm.
Imperative Imp.
Imperfect Impf.
Infinitive Inf.
Literally Litrl.
masculine m.
noun n.
Old Testament O.T.
paragraph Par.
Participle Part.
passive pass.
Perfect Perf.
plural pl.
preposition prep.
pronoun pron.
pronominal pronm.
somebody sb.
something sth.
singular sg.
verb v.
virtual doubling vd.

ABP Apostolic Bible Polyglot
ASV American Standard Version
BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
BSV Berean Standard Version
CEV Contemporary English Version
CSB Christian Standard Bible
DRB Douay Rheims Bible
ERV English Revised Version
ESV English Standard version
GNT Good News Translation
ISV International Standard Version
KJB King James Bible
MSG The Message
NASB New American Standard Bibl
NHEB New Heart English Bible
NKJV New King James Version
NIV New International Version
NLT New Living Translation
WBT Webster's Bible Translation
WEB World English Bible
YLT Young's Literal Translation