Biblical Hebrew

1 Samuel

       וַתִּקְרָא      אֶת־שְׁמוֹ  שְׁמוּאֵל      כִּי        מֵיְהוָה         שְׁאִלְתִּיו
  I have asked him    from YHWH   because   Samuel   his name   and she called
 
The name "Samuel" has two possible meanings.

   שֵׁם־אֱלֹהִים   "name of God" 
שָׁמַע־אֱלֹהִים    "God heard" 

Samuel was the last of the ruling judges in the Old Testament. 
He anointed Saul to be the first King of Israel and later anointed David. 


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Introduction
The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible 
and two books (1 Samuel and 2 Samuel) in the Christian Old Testament

The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (JoshuaJudges, Samuel, and Kings) that constitute a theological history of the Israelites and that aim to explain God's law for Israel under the guidance of the prophets.

Author
According to Jewish tradition, the book was written by Samuel, 
with additions by the prophets Gad and Nathan.  

Date
Modern scholarly thinking posits (assume as a fact) that the entire Deuteronomistic history was composed circa 630–540 BCE by 
combining a number of independent texts of various ages. 

2 Books
1 and 2 Samuel were originally (and, in most Jewish bibles, still are) one book, 
but the first Greek translation, 
called the Septuagint and produced around the second century BC, 
divided it into two books. 
This was adopted by the Latin translations used in the early Christian church of the West, and finally introduced into Jewish bibles around the early 16th century.
  
4 Books
In imitation of the Septuagint what is now commonly known as 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, are called by the Vulgate, 1 Kings and 2 Kings respectively. 
What are now commonly known as 1 Kings and 2 Kings would then be 
3 Kings and 4 Kings in old Bibles before the year 1516. 

It was in 1517 that use of the division we know today, 
used by Protestant Bibles and adopted by Catholics, began. 
Some Bibles still preserve the old name; for example, the Douay–Rheims Bible.


The rest of this comprehensive Wikipedia article on the book can be read here.

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1 Samuel 1:9b

                    עַל־       מְזוּזַת            הֵיכַל       יְהוָה׃
                           Yahweh    the temple of     the doorpost of    by

In BHS there are two footnotes.


The first footnote states that three major sources (the LXX, the Targums, and the Vulgate have the plural form of מְזוּזַת
The Greek Septuagint indeed has των φλιών meaning, "the doorposts."

The second footnote states that one medieval Manuscript, the Syriac Peshitta, and Codex Leningradensis have "house of YHWH." It also refers us to 3:3 
where similar footnote is found. The NIV for example, follows this suggestion.

The Tabernacle remained stationary at Shiloh for 369 years. 
It is therefore reasonable to summize that numerous buildings of a more solid nature grew up around it.
The Hebrew word used here, and the expression "doors of the house" 
(1 Sm 3:15), seem to suggest that by the time of this narrative, a permanent structure or building, possibly of stone, and surrounding the Tabernacle, had been built.
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מְזוּזַת
Noun, f. sg. cstr. meaning, "doorpost of, gatepost of." 
Today, to fulfill the mitzvah (Biblical commandment) in Dt 6:9, a "mezuzah" 
(a small parchment inscribed with religious texts and attached in a case to the doorpost of a Jewish home as a sign of faith.
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Jewish customs

 Dt 6:6-9
6 These words I am commanding you today are to be upon your hearts. 
7 And you shall teach them diligently to your children and speak of them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. 
8 Tie them as reminders on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. 
9 Write them on the doorposts of your houses and on your gates. 

Jews affix their mezuzahs at an angle, simply because the rabbis could not decide whether it should be placed horizontally or vertically, so they compromised! 
Sephardic Jews place their mezuzah straight up and down.  

Every time a Jew passes through a door with an affixed mezuzah, he or she is to kiss their fingers and touch them to the mezuzah, expressing love and respect for God and his commandments and reminding themselves of the commandments contained within them.

It is proper, and even recommended, to remove a mezuzah from the doorpost if you are moving (or even remodeling) as the subsequent owner may treat it with disrespect, a grave sin.



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1 Samuel 25:34d

                   עַד־     אוֹר        הַבֹּקֶר           מַשְׁתִּין           בְּקִיר׃
against a wall    one who urinates    the morning    the light of    by    


KJB      by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall.
NIV       one male .... by daybreak."
NASB   until the morning light as much as one male.”
ESV      by morning .... so much as one male.”
ASB      by the morning light so much as one man-child.
LSV      until the morning light, of those sitting on the wall.” (Is 36:12)
NHEB   by the morning light so much as one who urinates on a wall."
AFR53  wat manlik is, tot die môrelig oorgebly het nie!
AFR83  enkele manspersoon tot die môrelig ...

מַשְׁתִּין
Hiph'il participle active sg. of the verb root  שׁתן meaning "one who urinates."
This verb form occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible, and is always in regards to the extermination of a family:
1 Sm 25:22,34; 1 Kgs 14:10, 16:11, 21:21; 2 Kgs 9:8.

The author has opted to indicate the male gender by mentioning the way in which they urinate (as opposed to squatting by females).

As can be seen above, some translators have changed the meaning of the original MT Hebrew completely. Others found the literal text too graphic and / or offensive and therefore decided to instead use the noun "males" which is implied in the MT.

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