Biblical Hebrew



  Joshua 1:1b
(An extract from BHFA Volume 5.)

           וַיֹּאמֶר       יְהוָה      אֶל־  יְהוֹשֻׁעַ       בִּן־       נוּן
               Nun    the son of    Joshua       to       Yahweh    and he spoke

KJB         the LORD spake unto Joshua
NASB the LORD spoke to Joshua
ESV         the LORD said to Joshua
NLT         the LORD spoke to Joshua
NIV         the LORD said to Joshua

 יֵשׁוּעַ is the Aramaic for יְהוֹשֻׁעַ 
Aramaic was the lingua franca 
(the commonly spoken language) 
in Palestine at the time when the virgin Mary gave birth to her first-born son. As instructed to Joseph by the angel, they gave their son the Aramaic name  יֵשׁוּעַ 

It was translated in the Greek Septuagint as Ἰησοῦς and from that into English as, "Jesus."

The name "Joshua" appears 218 times in the Hebrew Bible.


  The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament, and is the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile. 

It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central, southern and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, and the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the second by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law (torah) that was revealed to Moses.

I. Transfer of leadership to Joshua (1:1–18)
A. God's commission to Joshua (1:1–9)
B. Joshua's instructions to the people (1:10–18)

II. Entrance into and conquest of Canaan (2:1–12:24)
A. Entry into Canaan
1.Reconnaissance of Jericho (2:1–24)
2. Crossing the River Jordan (3:1–17)
3. Establishing a foothold at Gilgal (4:1–5:1)
4. Circumcision and Passover (5:2–15)

B. Victory over Canaan (6:1–12:24)
1. Destruction of Jericho (6)
2. Failure and success at Ai (7:1–8:29)
3. Renewal of the covenant at Mount Ebal (8:30–35)
4. Other campaigns in central Canaan. The Gibeonite Deception (9:1–27)
5. Campaigns in southern Canaan (10:1–43)
6. Campaigns in northern Canaan (11:1–15)
7. Summary of lands conquered (11:16-23)
8. Summary list of defeated kings (12:1–24)

III. Division of the land among the tribes (13:1–22:34)
A. God's instructions to Joshua (13:1–7)
B. Tribal allotments (13:8–19:51)
1. Eastern tribes (13:8–33)
2. Western tribes (14:1–19:51)
C. Cities of refuge and levitical cities (20:1–21:42)
D. Summary of conquest (21:43–45)
E. De-commissioning of the eastern tribes (22:1–34)

IV. Conclusion (23:1–24:33)
A. Joshua's farewell address (23:1–16)
B. Covenant at Shechem (24:1–28)
C. Deaths of Joshua and Eleazar; burial of Joseph's bones (24:29–33)

The rest of this comprehensive Wikipedia article on the book can be read here.

  Joshua 4:9a
(An extract from BHFA Volume 5.)

      וּשְׁתֵּים  עֶשְׂרֵה  אֲבָנִים    הֵקִים    יְהוֹשֻׁעַ        בְּתוֹךְ        הַיַּרְדֵּן
     the Jordan   in the middle of   Joshua   he set up   stones      ten      and two

KJB     And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan,
NASB  Then Joshua set up twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan
ESV     And Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of the Jordan,
NLT Joshua also set up another pile of twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan,
NIV Joshua set up the twelve stones that had been in the middle of the Jordan

Many scholars believe that this account of events stands in contrast to the account in Jos 4:20 in which the stones are set up at Gilgal. 
But in 4:8-9 we learn that there were two sets of stones. 
Twelve stones were set up in the Jordan, 
and twelve stones were taken with them to later be set up at Gilgal.

The NIV attempts to harmonize these two accounts by changing this verse to say that Joshua set up the twelve stones that "had been" in the middle of the Jordan. However, the past-tense verb that the NIV has inserted does not appear in the Hebrew. To their credit, the NIV does offer an alternate translation in a footnote, which is correct as it adds “also” to imply a second set of 12 stones.